Sejarah dan Perkembangan Bahasa Italia

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Tulisan kali ini bertema Sejarah dan Perkembangan Bahasa Italia. Bahasa Italia merupakan salah satu bahasa yang paling banyak dipakai di Uni Eropa dengan jumlah penutur mencapai 68 juta orang. Di negara Italia sendiri terdapat 60 juta orang penuturnya.

Bahasa Italia menjadi bahasa resmi di negara Italia sendiri, di San Marino negara kecil yang dkelilingi negara Italia dan di negara Vatikan. Bahasa Italia juga menjadi salah satu dari empat bahasa resmi di negara Switzerland, terutama di wilayah Ticino dan Graubunden. Juga menjadi bahasa resmi regional di Istria (Slovenia) dan Kota Istria (Croatia).

Namun demikian, tampaknya bahasa Italia tidak mendapat perhatian yang cukup besar dari kita. Hal ini bisa jadi karena bahasa Italia sebagian besar hanya digunakan di Uni Eropa, khususnya di Italia, namun  tidak dipergunakan cukup banyak di negara bekas jajahannya sepeti halnya bahasa Perancis, bahasa Spanyol atau bahasa Portugis.

Menurut sebuah sumber, Italia menjadi bahasa ke-4 atau ke-5 sebagai bahasa yang paling banyak dipelajari orang di dunia. Bahasa ini juga menjadi bahasa yang dipakai komunitas Italia di luar negeri, seperti di Amerika Serikat ada sekitar 700 ribu orang yang menggunakan bahasa Italia menurut Biro Sensus Penduduk AS.

Dampak bahasa Italia terhadap kebudayaan cukup besar. Para komponis dari Italia menyusun sistem notasi musik yang masih dipakai hingga sekarang. Beberapa bahasa Italia seperti acapella, crescendo, soprano and tempo sangat terkenal di dunia musik. Di samping itu, jika Anda pecinta kopi, pasti sangat familiar dengan kata-kata seperti  espresso, coffee grande, venti dan treinta.

Dari sejarahnya perkembangannya, Bahasa Italia adalah anggota dari cabang bahasa Italo Dalmatian yang merupakan keluarga dari Bahasa Roman (Romawi). Bahasa Italia standar yang sekarang ini berasal dari dialek Toscana dari wilayah Tuscany dan dialek Florentine dari wilayah Florence.

Dialek-dialek bahasa Roman (Romawi) berkembang dari bahasa Latin Vulgar. Bahasa Romawi ini tetap menjadi bahasa formal tulisan dan percakapan hingga Abad Pertengahan di wilayah yang sekarang dikenal sebagai negara Italia.

Namun selama itu pula telah muncul literatur yang menggunakan tulisan selain dari bahasa Latin tersebut. Benih dari bahasa Italia standar ini muncul dalam bentuk puisi dan literatur di Toscana pada abad ke13 M.

Pada abad ke-14 seorang penyair dari Toscana bernama Dante Alighieri mempublikasikan karya terkenalnya Divina Commedia (Divine Commedy). Ia berasal dari wilayah Florence dan karyanya itu mengikuti dialek Toscana dengan sejumlah elemen bahasa Latin dan dialek lainnya juga.

Dante seringkali disebut sebagai bapak dari bahasa Italia, karena karyanya itu dibaca oleh banyak orang terpelajar di seluruh wilayah Italia. Hasilnya, bentuk tulisan yang dipergunakannya menjadi yang paling banyak dipahami. Beberapa abad kemudian berkembang menjadi standar bahasa tulisan.



Here is the subscript of the video:

Italian language may not get as much attention as French, Spanish and Portuguese because it’s mainly spoken in Europe rather than in former colonies. But it’s still one of the most widely spoken languages in the European Union with around 68 million speakers.

There are around 60 million of those speakers in Italy of course where Italian is the official language. Italian is also the official language of San Marino, a tiny enclaves surrounded by Italy and it’s also a de facto official language of the Vatican City.

It’s also one of the four official languages of Switzerland where it’s mainly used in Ticino and the southern canton of called London and it’s official at the regional level in Slovenian, Astoria and in Istria county in Croatia. It’s also spoken by overseas communities, among them in the United States where over 700,000 people speak it according to the US Census Bureau.

Italian has had a cultural impact on the rest of the world because Italian composer has developed our current system of musical notation. Italian is the common language of musical notation and nomenclature words like acapella, crescendo, soprano and tempo, all come from Italian.

And if you’re a coffee lover, you probably know some Italian words, because Italian coffee culture has inspired imitation throughout the world. Words like “espresso” from “cafe espresso” meaning pressed out. “Coffee grande” which means large, “venti” which means 20 as in more than 20 ounces of coffee and “treinta” which means heart attack, actually it means 30.

Italian is a member of the Italo Dalmatian branch of the Roman language family. But when we talk about the Italian language what exactly are we talking about?

Italy has historically had an extremely diverse variety of Roman dialects which can be grouped together and arguably classified as dialects of various regional languages. The majority of these dialects belong to the Italo Dalmatian branch, but many in northern Italy do not.

When we speak about the Italian language in its strictest sense we are speaking about standard Italian which developed from a specific set of Italo Dalmatian dialects -dos Cano the Tuscan dialects- that are spoken in the Tuscany region and in particular the Florentine dialect of Florence.

The Roman dialects in Italy like all Roman languages developed from varieties of Vulgar Latin originally the language of Rome. The Roman Empire remained the formal language of writing and literature up until the late Middle Ages in what is now Italy.

But during that period a vernacular literary tradition began to emerge in other words literature written in the language of everyday speech rather than Latin became more widespread. The seeds of standard Italian were planted by Tuscan poetry and literature in the 13th century.

In the 14th century Tuscan poet Dante Alighieri published his masterpiece the Divine Comedy in Italian originally called just Comedia but later referred to as Divina Commedia. Dante was from Florence and his writing largely resembled the Tuscan dialect of that city with some elements of Latin as well as other dialects.

Dante is often referred to as the father of the Italian language, because his work came to be read by educated people in every region of the peninsula. As a result, the form of language used in his writing became the most widely understood and over the next couple of centuries it became established as the de facto standard literary language.

Other 14th century poets who greatly contributed to this were Francesco Petrarca and Giovanni Boccaccio. In the 16th century Pietro Benbow helped to standardize literary Italian based on the model of Petrarca, Boccaccio and Allegory.

Later in the 19th century a novelist named Alessandro Manzoni had a big impact on the development of modern Standard Italian. Thanks to his novel the betrothed witch is called Ypres mrs. palsey in Italian. This was the first novel written in Italian and is said to be the most famous novel in the Italian language.

Even though it’s not widely read in other languages Manzoni wrote the novel in the modern Florentine dialect with some influence from the Florentine literature of the 14th century when the historical states of Italy became unified.

In the 19th century Italian became the official language of Italy and the Italian government accepted Manzoni’s proposal to make this variety standard Italian at the time of unification. Most Italians were not able to speak Italian meaning literary Tuscan different.

Estimates from that time range from 2.5 percent of the population to 10 percent of the population even though it was the most widely understood written language most of the population were illiterate and lacked exposure to it.

Unifying the linguistically diverse nation became one of Italian’s main functions nowadays. Virtually all Italians are fluent in Italian which exists alongside Italy’s vast array of Roman dialects. Though in some areas Italian has largely replaced local dialect…

(Please watch the whole video to find out the rest)


Source: Langfocus Channel on Youtube

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